As human being, we often wondered that ‘wouldn’t it be awesome if we live in a society where husband wife live their married life peacefully and there is no quarrel among them. What if there is no dowry demand from groom’s family and consequently no dowry giving by the daughter’s family, then we all live in equitable society.
Recent event suggest, if we all take individual responsibility of not demanding dowry and not giving dowry, then it is possible that we will truly live in a society where parents will happily give their daughter’s hand to groom without thinking about their empty pockets or financial burden and consequently, there will be gender equality, where a girl child birth will be celebrated.
Recently, In a step towards stricter implementation of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, the government has issued a circular directing all male government employees to furnish a declaration to their heads of departments within one month of their marriage that they have not taken any dowry. In the circular, the State Women and Child Development Director, who is also the Chief Dowry Prohibition Officer as per the Kerala Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Rules, 2021, has asked the heads of departments to obtain and maintain declarations from government employees that they have not asked for, taken, or exhorted the receipt of dowry.
This is a positive approach by the Kerala government which must be appreciated by everyone in the country and there must not be any political debate on this. Here’s wishing state governments and central government will follow in the footsteps of the Kerala government and will implement similar measures not just among government employee but also among every private individual.
It became eighth nation to declare itself free of any active coronavirus case? So what it did successfully that many developed nations could not?
On Sunday at a news briefing in New Zealand, Prime Minister Jacinda Arden declared that New Zealand has successfully eliminated transmission of novel COVID19 and is ready to open its economy and day to day life without any restrictions. This wonderful news came at a time when still more than half of the world is still grappling with active cases of this pandemic disease including in nations like USA,UK, India, China, UAE etc. So what a small nation like New Zealand did which even giant economies could not able to do to contain this virus disease?
New Zealand is a country of Five million people. Although population is not large as to other countries including Australia yet the course of action its health ministry did is definitely commendable. It pursued an ‘Elimination Strategy’ to beat deadly coronavirus which means it eliminated ‘chains of transmission’ of virus among people successfully for 28 days since June 15.
Health experts are of the view that due to its isolated location in the South- Pacific region, New Zealand had ample amount of time to notice the outbreak of this disease in other countries and for seven weeks, it went on complete lockdown with movements allowed only for essential workers. During seven week lockdown there was no news of people violating any government restrictions that were put in place. All these factors successfully averted any chain reaction of virus among its people. Due to strict government action and active participation by its citizens, only 1500 people contracted the virus including 22 death.
However, New Zealand Prime Minister took note of the situation that from Tuesday all restrictions will be lifted except border closure restriction and that there is a possibility that incoming cases of coronavirus may be found in people entering into New Zealand via airways.
New Zealand became eighth country to join exclusive group of nations successfully ending active COVID19 cases according to Johns Hopkins University. Besides New Zealand, Montenegro, Eritrea, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Holy See, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Fiji, East Timor have either have successfully eliminated any active cases.
Developed and Developing economies must consider the policies adopted by these nations’s government in containing growing active cases in their countries and must implement it in their policies. These 8 countries can now look forward to accelerate their economy without any restriction and loss of life due to coronavirus whereas other nations who have lifted restrictions partially or completely are still at huge risk of losing lives and more spread of this pandemic disease.
“It’s time for big nation to learn from so called small nations”
Multi- Level Marketing (MLM) is a form of direct sales home business in which independent representative sell products or services from a company to an end consumer. It is called as multi-level because representative’s of company recruits new representatives and train them to start their own business and earn commission on selling company’s products. A simple example is that of Amway which is an American multi-level marketing company deals with health, beauty and home care products since its establishment in 1959. At present it is one of the most trusted global MLM brand all over the world. It is after Amway’s success that led the foundation of lakhs of other multi-level marketing companies like Avon, Harbalife, Vorwerk, Infinitus, Mary Kay, Natura, Perfect whose annual revenue is in billion dollars.
Through MLM not only company earn profit but also representatives or distributors that earn commission and in some case a portion of company’s profit as there are certain companies who during the end of financial year and based on business volume of representatives gives a percentage of profits.
During and Aftermath of COVD-19 because in many parts of the world, this virus disease is still spreading and because of lockdown, the world is facing its worst recession and its not just only third world that is worst hit due to pandemic, it is also developed economies like USA, China and also developing economies like India, Brazil. There is job crisis as companies who are facing financial loss are laying off its employees even after strict intervention and policy declared by government to not terminate anyone’s employments and wages. So now with so much uncertainty, how to look ahead with hope to earn bread and butter?
This is where MLM stands out. I am talking in Indian context where this is the time when the government has urged people to ‘Go Desi’ i.e. buy ‘Made in India’ product. There are so many MLM companies in India where anyone can join it as representative at much less joining fee, buy minimum products or whatever amount he/she wants to spend on at lower cost than MRP cost, distribute to people he/she thinks are willing to invest in the products he is offering and also add him to company’s representative list.
There is one basic different between buying products in retail store of multi-national companies and buying products of MLM companies. If u buy product of any multi-national product or local product from shopkeeper or retail store, you only get product in return of money you spend on a particular but in latter case, if you buy product from MLM company, firstly, you are buying after joining as representative/distributor at very less registration fee and buying products at much lower rate than its original market rate and you are earning a portion from that MRP to your pocket. Besides this, distributors also earn money in form of leadership bonus, pool income, royalty bonus, technical bonus etc. Also on every subsequent addition of new representative/distributor, you are able to earn commission and whatever they buy, a portion of that also give in your pockets. It is great source of earning income. In this digital world, you don’t have to meet potential representatives face to face or you don’t have to knock door-to-door. You can explain your product plan online also.
Right now, when unemployment rate is going high, MLM companies are giving a ray of hope to people who have potential to earn profitable income and it is better to earn money from multiple sources rather than one. I am no market specialist but it is my opinion there is great deal of earning chances in MLM. Some of famous Indian multi-level marketing companies are:-
Future Maker Care Pvt. Ltd.
The employment prospect is wide in multi-level marketing companies and is also great opportunity to buy and sell locally manufactured products. This way you are not doing good for your country but for you and your family.
On Friday, US President Donald Trump announced that he is terminating US membership in World Health Organisation as he was not satisfied with the way this international organisation is handling China’s response to Coronavirus. In a press briefing he reiterated his commitment “ to withdraw financial contribution to WHO and redirect that funds to other urgent global public health needs”.
The USA is major financial contributor to WHO providing almost $450 million a year followed by China who contributed almost one-third to what America contributes and this may be one of the reason why Trump took such stern action against WHO for not taking any significant step towards China to address the ongoing pandemic situation. USA till now lost more than one lakh citizens due to COVID19 and the overall global death figure is even worse. Entire world has to come up a with a vaccine to counter this virus disease. Many fear that even though some countries are successful in flattening curve of infected cases, yet the worst isn’t over and it may very well play havoc with change in climate conditions. Countries like USA, UK, India etc. haven’t seen peak in number of cases even though number of infected people are increasing day by day. Another factor which could have played significant role in Trump’s decision is economic recession the world is facing include USA too who has to shut off its manufacturing and other economic activities for almost two months while during that time, China started its business and production sector at fast pace. So it comes natural that Trump has justified his reason of holding its fund to WHO and accusing of biased response towards China.
Some political pundits and health experts views Trump’s decision as short-sighted and one which would eventually put US citizens health at risk. Sen. Lamar Alexander, R-Tenn., Chairman of the Senate Health , Education, Labor and Pensions Committee expressed his opinion in a statement that ‘Withdrawing U.S. membership could interfere with clinical trials that are essential to the development of vaccines which US citizens and others in the world needs’.
European Union and many Asian countries have urged President Trump to reconsider his decision of withdrawal of US membership from WHO as it was the USA who was the founding member of WHO and such decision will deeply affect economic contribution, research and development in global health sector. Whatever the future holds, it is too early to say anything on how USA’s withdrawal from WHO is going to affect global health services. But one thing can be said for sure is that the objective of Trump’s decision to pressurize China in taking responsibility for this pandemic situation is not going to bear any result and with such withdrawal USA has given golden platter to China to play dominant role with WHO member states.
All eyes are on USA right now and it is not just because of its planned crewed mission to International Space Station in nearly a decade, but for a different reason and its not a positive one. In the past 3 months, violence on black population has increased so much so that everyday social media site is full of news on death or grave injury being inflicted on people of color. Just last to last week, it was Ahmad Aubrey who was murdered brutally in broad daylight by armed white father-son duo and two days back, it was George Floyd who was unarmed and was violently tackled by four Minneapolis cop, one of whom held a knee to his neck. Anyone who saw the two viral videos of the killing of these two man would definately be shocked and cry to see the extent of racism exist in American society. USA was once a ‘Dreamland’ for any passionate non-USA dreamer who wants to pursue his dream but whatever is happening in America is creating doubts on prospective dreamer. As non-USA citizen, i know USA is my dream country to live in but considering recent events and as person of color, it creates doubt in my mind whether i truly want to live in an environment where there are no equal rights among white and person of color, where they are dealt differently by not just criminal system but in day to day life.
Truth is its not just USA who is a victim of racism but as human being we are all little bit racist whether based on color, caste, community, religion or economic status to name a few. In India too, one can notice difference in attitude of people with regard to economic status when dealing with stranger or people they know. There are few places in India where even after more than 70 years of Independence and progression of society, some people still differentiate with each other on basis of caste and religion. So to blame USA for racism would be wrong.
What we need is not just white people taking responsibility of racist blunder they have created and to make them realize that equal treatment must be given to non- white person. It should be more than that. We need to acknowledge that we all are ‘Human First’, that we are equal and deserve same treatment and behavior towards our self and towards other person. We have human life, then why waste on creating hindrance for each other, hate for each other when we can all thrive equally.
Racism needs to be ended from our mind now, from our thoughts if we truly want to live a peaceful life.
DISCLAIMER- Views expressed by author is entirely her own and is not intended to hurt anyone by any means.
May 27th, 2020 is day of another history making at least when it comes events in outer space. Space X, one of the most profitable space company on earth collaborated in 2015 with NASA to launch two astronauts on Spacecraft designed and built by Space X known as Dragon 2. This spacecraft was in development since 2010 but was publicly revealed in 2013. Elon Musk promised from the start that Crew Dragon will be developed and assembled keeping in mind with most advanced technology.
It is truly 21st century spacecraft as inside the cockpit, all the switches, knobs and dials are all touchscreens according to Space X’s Director of crew mission management, Mr. Benji Reed. This Crew Dragon is a crewed spacecraft designed to fly astronauts to International Space Station . It is also different from other Space X’s spacecraft like Cargo Dragon as Crew Dragon has an emergency abort system designed to separate capsule from its rocket in the event of any launch emergency.
Today will be Space X’s first crewed space mission in history of outer space and private space company. It is also a historic moment for NASA and USA as almost after a decade, a crewed space mission will be launched to space from American soil.
UPDATE-: Launch is delayed due to bad weather. Next attempt by NASA and Space X to launch astronauts to International Space Station will be done on May 30th. Space X created history with the successful launch of Crew Dragon carrying two astronauts to International Space Station. With this launch, Space X became First private company to launch crewed mission to outer space and with this, the prospect of space tourism has come into fruition.
“Ensuring everyone’s right to food and nourishment is an imperative we cannot ignore”- Pope Francis
Few days back I was going through my twitter feed when I came across very disturbing tweet posted by leading news channel. The caption reads ‘Shocking extent of Hunger : Starving man found eating dead dog near Jaipur , Viral video stuns India’. It shocked me to the core and forced me to think that are we failing each other as humans. The world is going through tough times right now in form of novel coronavirus and the worst isn’t over. This pandemic situation has put world on alert from the beginning of the year and as a result of it, more than 75% part of the world went into lockdown. Obviously, the worst hit among the society was the poor strata and the migrant labours especially in Indian context. Despite many assurances and relief packages announced by the Government of India, it hasn’t reached to all those in dire need of financial assistance and food. Many people of low income and those living in slums and on street fear more of dying due to hunger than of coronavirus. At the time of writing this, there is some relaxation given by the government but the problem of access to food remains very apprehensive. The world has developed so much after two world wars, the standard of living of people has improved tremendously in last 70 years or so and availability of goods has expand immensely, yet human beings find great difficulty to access the most basic need i.e. Food.
Isn’t Right to Food a basic human right and fundamental right in India ? Is it a global fundamental right? What has UN and agency doing to make sure every individual on this planet has access to food without much hardship?
In India, The Supreme Court in various legal cases stated that Article 21 of the Constitution of India, guarantees that ‘No person shall be deprived of his life and personal liberty except procedure established by law’. The scope of ‘Right to Life’ includes ‘Right to Food’. The two most leading cases where Supreme Court took above mentioned view is ManekaGandhi vs. Union of India AIR 1978 SC 597 and ShantistarBuildersvs. Narayan Khimalal Totame (1990) 1 SCC 597. Apart from Article 21, Article 39(a) of the Constitution which deals with Directive Principles of State Policy requires the state to direct its policy towards securing that all its citizens have the right to an adequate means of livelihood. Even after the scope of Article 21 being expanded so much by the top court to include ‘Right to Food’ as part of Fundamental Right, it is disturbing to see that real situation is not what one assumes.
A special law was passed in 2013 known as The National Food Security Act. It is an Act to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable price to eligible household identified under section 10(1) shall be entitled to receive five kilograms of food grain per person under targeted public distribution system. In recent time, millions of people living below poverty line are benefitted directly through this act especially those that are identified on basis of their economic and social situation but what about those that are poor but do not have any prove to show their economic status? This act needs amendment to include every person who are financially in distress even for temporary period of time.
Globally, Access to food is our basic human right and as recognised in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as part of the “Right to an adequate standard of living….Including food, clothing, housing ” under Article 25(1). The signatory States of The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(ICESC) recognized the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family under Article 11(1) and the states also recognized “The fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger and shall take measures either individually and through international co-operation” under sub-clause 2. Right to free from hunger cannot be interpret as right to access to food as these are two different concept. While right to freedom from hunger can be measured in terms of malnutrition, Free to access food is measured by close availability of food without much hardship to people who don’t have any financial or limited financial respurces.
Food is necessity for human survival. It is one of the basic needs of any human being. But unfortunately, as per UN report in 2018, more than 821 million people suffered from hunger. One in nine people do not get enough food to be healthy and lead nutritional life. Hunger is one of the biggest risks to health worldwide almost at par with covid-19 which is turning out to be deadly in the world right now. To make sure that people have access to food, world leaders in 2000 gathered at UN to share common vision to end poverty and formulated eight ‘Millenium Development Goals’. In 2010, it was officially declared that MDG was successful in reducing the poverty numbers by half and the proportion of under- nourished people in the region fell by almost half.
Another initiative undertook by UN to eradicate hunger is ‘Zero Hunger Challenge’ in 2012 during Rio+20 world conference on sustainable development. It calls for 100% access to adequate food all year round and zero loss or waste of loss among other measures. One of the consistent Sustainable Development Goals is to “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture” by 2030 but such target would require equal and active participation by all the member states. Apart from UN food access programme and goals, there are agencies like World Food Programme which aims to bring food assistance to more than 80 million people in 80 countries and to respond food related emergency. World Bank’s priority in global agriculture sector is to raise investment in this sector to boost nutrition, food production and to built a food system that can feed everyone everywhere. Another agency working tirelessly to achieve hunger free world is UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Its purpose is to make sure that people have enough access to high quality food to lead healthy life. The International Fund for Agriculture Development is focusing exclusively to eradicate hunger in rural areas in developing countries and to improve lives of those living in rural area.
But in spite of all these efforts by current government and governments in the past, some states have failed to implement access to food as part of ‘right to life’ in their policies. The availability of food grain in India is sufficient but still why many people live in hunger and are forced to eat dead animals is one we should collectively examine and needs to act with generosity. Internationally, the situation is same and in some parts of the world even worse. The member states needs to acknowledge ‘Free access to food and no waste of food by individual or corporate’ and declare it a global fundamental right. To say that it is the duty of governments to make sure very human being is being fed daily is wrong. Just recognizing ‘Right to Food’ as fundamental right is not enough but working collectively towards achieving equal access to food should be the aim of every member states of UN.
Individually, we as humans need to stand up for each other and make sure to feed those in need. If every person is able to feed one other person, then we as human beings then we can beat poverty problem
Human from time immemorial has always been curious to know life beyond earth. In the quest to find life and resources outside earth,initially USA and USSR (Presently Russia) sent many unscrewed and crewed mission to moon and beyond and in space. After that, many countries joined elite league to mark their presence in space. Many historic moments were created by various space agency but USA Space Agency NASA’s achievement is one that is truly been inspiring and commendable. It is one of the leading space agency globally who has successfully established USA’s dominant status in outer space and one which many countries aspire to achieve from its space program. NASA’s Artemis mission is one such lunar program which many people have eye on its success and curiosity as to its mission.
Through Artemis lunar program, NASA is committed to land its astronauts on lunar surface once again after historic Apollo 11 mission in 1969. This time it is planning to land one woman and one male astronaut thus promoting gender equality in its space program.
The name ‘Artemis’ come from Greek mythology and has close connection with Apollo. Artemis was twin sister of Apollo, thus one can assume that’s why NASA’s second manned lunar mission is named as Artemis. This lunar mission program’s uniqueness lies in the fact that this is the first lunar mission where NASA is actively working with huge space companies like Space X, Blue Origin and Dynetics who are responsible to build human landing systems. Space X has been awarded contract to built a fully integrated Lander known as Starship that will use Space X’s super heavy rocket. Blue Origin is in process of developing the Integrated Lander Vehicle to be launched in its own New Glenn Rocket System and ULA Vulcan launch system while Dynetics is developing single structure human landing system to be launched on Vulcan launch system.
NASA Artemis program consist of two phase. In the first phase known as Artemis I, NASA will test its own powerful rocket, Space launch system and spacecraft Orion. It will be unscrewed flight mission and will be launched in 2021. In its second phase 2 known as Artemis II, the SLS and Orion will carry crewed mission. In its final and ultimate phase, Artemis III, NASA will land astronauts in 2024. NASA’s Artemis lunar mission is in line with its crewed Mars Mission set to be launch by 2028.
Recently, NASA announced ‘Artemis Accords’ which are guidelines to be followed by not just USA but every contracting nation who is and will be involved with NASA in its Artemis mission which is an international collaboration. The intent behind such accord is to prove that NASA is carrying out lunar mission well within the ambit of Outer Space Treaty, 1967(OST) and is not violating any principle and provision of it.
However it is too soon to comment on whether OST is being violated by NASA or not? Artemis Accord will be bilateral agreement meaning that any international agency will enter into bilateral agreement with NASA and execute it to create more transparent environment for space exploration, commercial and research activities in outer space to ensure that their mission is for the benefit of humankind and for their development. As per any bilateral agreement related to Artemis program, the participating space agencies will share the information on their space exploration plans and make their scientific data available to NASA including any activity related to space mining. One of the purposes of including space mining in its accord is to show to the world that NASA’s space mining activity is being carrying out keeping in mind provisions of Articles II, VI and XI of OST, 1967. As per Article II, outer space in not subject to any claim by any nation by means of occupation. Article VI deals with international responsibility to be borne by state party for its activities in outer space and any state party in order to carry out any space activity shall inform of it to UN Secretary- General, Scientific community and to public to ensure transparency as per Article XI.
While NASA claims to abide itself by OST, still there are certain doubts about it especially when it comes to space mining activity. Any resources find and explore by government and non-government organization will always have upper hand over its commercial use. OST talks about non-ownership by any entity yet reality will always be different. However, its just an assumption and will have wait and see how US non-governmental players abide by OST.
There is no doubt that US Space Agency’s ‘Artemis lunar mission’ will prove to be a breakthrough in demonstrating new technologies needed for future Mars exploration and establishing US as outer space leader .
“Space is infinite and so is the quest of human to reach the stars and beyond” In 2012, USA celebrated 50 years of its space program and huge quota of achievements. In October, 2020 it will celebrate 58 years of its establishment and operation. On October 1, 1958 National Aeronautics and Space Administration became operational with an estimated budget of $100 million and 8000 employees in Washington D.C. On October 11, 1958 it launched its first space probe, Pioneer 1. Since then, NASA biggest contribution to space exploration includes launch of Pioneer 3, first satellite which NASA made in conjunction with US Army Ballistic Missile Agency to fly at an altitude of 63,850 miles, Pioneer 4, first lunar flyby, TIROS 1, first weather satellite placed on earth orbit, John Glenn became first American astronaut to circle the earth in 1962. The most significant and history making moment in humankind came in 1969 with the launch of Apollo 11, a manned spacecraft that carried 3 astronauts on moon surface. In 1971, NASA launched first space mission Mariner 9 to orbit another planet i.e. Mars. In 1975, NASA cooperated with USSR Space Agency to achieve the first human space flight, the Apollo- Soyuz project which successfully tested joint tryst and docking procedures for spacecraft from the two nations. On 12th April, 1981, NASA launched first space shuttle, Columbia to place astronauts in space and carry on various space missions. In 1984, NASA started working on International Space Station (ISS) and in 2000, humans first inhabit ISS.
In terms of research centers, NASA carries out research and technical mission in 10 research centers across USA. Prominent among them are Kennedy Space Centre, Johnson Space Centre and Armstrong Flight Research Centre.
NASA- PRIVATE SECTOR COLLABORATION
US Space Agency in order to expand its capabilities in technology and communication sector like satellites, earth monitoring, navigation and exploration system recognize the role of private sector and how importance it is to collaborate with private space companies to achieve space dominion when other countries are giving tough competition to NASA like European Space Agency, China Space Agency and the already existing Russia Space Agency and to innovate space technologies and machines at low cost and with budget of no constraint while also maintaining control in triple-P (Public-Private Partnership). With these objectives in mind, the then US President Barack Obama approved and issued the National Space Policy Directives in 2010 to encourage federal departments and agencies to actively explore the use of inventive, non-traditional arrangements to acquire commercial space goods and services to meet US Government requirements including measures such as public-private partnerships, hosting government capabilities on commercial spacecrafts and purchasing scientific and operational data products from commercial satellite operators in support of government missions. This policy helped NASA to fill the void created with the discontinuation of Space Shuttle Program in 2011 due to budget cuts. To maintain and resupply cargo to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA entered into various agreements with more than 10 commercial space companies like Space X, Blue Origin, Boeing to manufacture and install facilities on ISS and to develop space crafts to carry astronauts and space tourist to outer space from 2020 onwards and to land and carry out research and experiments on other heavenly bodies including planets. This partnership is ever increasing and proving to be profitable to both the sectors. According to a report published by Space Angels, space companies who have invested in government space contracts received fund worth more than billion dollars. For example, Space X in its early years invested heavily in government contracts and received public funding worth $1 Billion. Those companies who have invested in space sector and bought space contracts received funding worth more than $7 Billion. This shows that US space companies are earning profits not just from their operational and manufacturing activities but also been receiving huge amount of public fund. This also exhibits the potential of space industry as the most sought after industry in the world economy.
According to Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs, US Space industry is on its way to become $1 Trillion economy all due to recent and paced developments in field of communication and technology and large chunk of contribution goes to Elon Musk, CEO of Space X, whose company has acquired ambitious contracts related to ISS, moon lander and mining activities, Mars Landing and carrying out research on asteroids all while simultaneously launching more than 300 satellite pool of starlink constellation satellite. The future of US Space Industry is prosperous, one that is full of adventure and infinite history making moments. As space nerd, it’s the exciting time to witness these moment.
INDIA’S SPACE PROGRAM
India’s space program started with the establishment of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969. Like NASA, ISRO too operates through a network of centers. For example, payloads and sensors are developed at Space Application Centre in Ahmedabad. Satellites are designed, developed, assembled and tested at ISRO Satellite Centre in Bangalore and launched takes place at Vikram Sarabhai Centre. Since its time of operation till now, ISRO has become one of world’s top 5 space agency in terms of number of satellites launched, space missions etc. Some of the achievements of ISRO include its launch of first satellite, Aryabhata in 1975 by the then Soviet Union. The first satellite to be launched on indigenous launch vehicle was Rohini in 1980, space lunar missions like Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Chandrayaan-2 in 2019 Mars Mission like Mars Orbitor Mission in 2013.in 2019 it became the fourth nation to have Anti-Satellite weapon system to shot down junk satellite placed in lower earth orbit. It plans to launch astronaut in 2022 with the launch of Gaganyaan Mission
Until last year, ISRO solely was responsible for satellite design and launch making. With the aim to lessen the burden of ISRO and encourage private participation in Indian space industry, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s commercial wing NewSpace India Ltd. (NSIL) invited tenders from space companies to develop five PSLV’s. NSIL received payload slot on the first commercial launch of ISRO’s new rocket- Small Satellite Launch Vehicle from US Space Company, Spaceflight. Nationwise collaboration, ISRO and US has already started working on Satellite Navigation (SatNav). The US Congress has decided to designate the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
In the past three years, ISRO is doing commendable work not only in field of space engineering and technology but also encouraging local space startup to come forward with ideas that can lower cost of satellite and space mission launch while also expanding the horizon for Indian Space System to prove itself as tough competitor in space race. If India follows NASA model of development, expansion and triple-P model consistently, there is no doubt that it will be a formidable space power. We have a top leader that is really making sure to make space sector as the topmost developed and profitable sector of economy, all India needs now is more private participation with ISRO and more Indian space startups. Right now, the world is going through pandemic situation, much worse than two world war and it has hit every nation’s space program in terms of delay in satellite and outer space mission launch. But here lies opportunity for Indian space industry and that is more collaboration between ISRO and Indian space companies in coming months. There are so many advantages to it. First, increase in future space missions. Second, low cost benefit to Indian government agency in manufacturing space instruments and components. Third, technology collaboration will be beneficial in long run. NASA is perfect example of triple-P program and it is achieving new heights as a result of it. Its time for ISRO to follow the same.
UPDATE– On 16th May, 2020 India’s Honourable Finance Minister Mrs. N. Sitaraman announced that private sector’s participation in space activities will be encouraged and “That India’s private sector will be co-traveller in India’s space sector journey” The government will provide level playing level for private companies in satellite, launches and space based activities. It will also provide predictible policy and regulatory environment to private players. Private sector will be allowed to use ISRO reources to improve their capacities.
This is bold and concrete step toward triple-P from government which is surely going to make India’s space sector one of the most profitable and competitive industry in the following years. It’s time to make India’s own Space X
Space is seriously facing debris problem with so many satellites launch and debris floating in outer space in form of non- operational satellites and its parts. At present, more than 2000 satellites are orbiting in lower earth atmosphere. According to space.com, a leading outer space related website, almost 1500 satellites are scheduled to launch in space. This number however may be lower than the estimation given the ongoing pandemic situation which has forced space agencies and space companies to halt their regular operation and research. But no matter what number of space objects will launch in coming months and year, the problem remains same and grave and that is ‘SPACE DEBRIS’.
Our outer space is becoming big junk of space objects with very less efforts are being going on to either lessen it or remove debris from the earth. Almost every space organization is in testing stage to develop technique and instrument like satellite which can remove space objects which are floating around the lower earth orbit. USA’s space agency NASA has a separate department known as ARES is working towards tracking and mitigating space junk. In 2019, European Space Agency green lit space debris mission ClearSpace-1 to remove an item an item of debris from space set to be launch in 2025. A Japanese Space Company Astroscale has begun constructing a prototype spacecraft ELSA-d which is planned to be launch in 2020 in space to remove dead satellites and pieces of dangerous space junk.
Recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory situated at New Mexico, USA has come up with their own plan on how to lessen space debris in future. According to its researchers, if the launching organization or companies use solid rocket fuel instead which are high-thrust, safer and reasonable at costing and it also can be stored for long period of time. However, it has its own limitation. It cannot be restarted once launched and also its movement cannot be stopped. And so that’s where researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have come up with breakthrough solution. They have recently developed the ability to stop and restart solid rocket motors numerous times from a single solid rockets in static test stands. A payload is also being developed that will contain power separately from the satellite and will be equipped with solid rocket system.
These solid rocket system and payload containing them shall play significant role in reducing space junk and for de-orbiting for years even after the satellites becomes non-functional.